One Person Company
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The concept of One Person Company in India was introduced through the Companies Act, 2013 to support entrepreneurs who on their own are capable of starting a venture by allowing them to create a single person economic entity. One of the biggest advantages of a One Person Company (OPC) is that there can be only one member in an OPC, while a minimum of two members are required for incorporating and maintaining a Private Limited Company or a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP). Similar to a Private Limited Company, a One Person Company is a separate legal entity from its promoter, offering limited liability protection to its sole shareholder, while having continuity of business and being easy to incorporate.
Incorporating a Company as Sole proprietorship
The concept of One Person Company in India was introduced by Dr. Jamshed J. Irani in his Report on Company Law dated 31st May, 2oo5 . As per the report, Dr. Irani recommended that with the increasing use of information technology and emergence of a strong service sector in India, it was time for the Government to empower entrepreneurs who on their own are capable of developing ideas and participating in the marketplace. He suggested that entrepreneurs who on their own are capable of starting a venture should not be made to do it through an association of persons, and should be able to create a single person economic entity in the form of ‘One Person Company’. Further, it was also suggested that such an entity may be provided with a simpler regime through exemptions so that the single entrepreneur is not compelled to fritter away his time, energy and resources on procedural matters.
This led to the introduction of “One Person Company” in the Companies Bill 2013, which got its assent in the Lok Sabha on 18 December 2012 and in the Rajya Sabha on 8 August 2013. After obtaining the assent of the President of India on 29 August 2013, it has become the Companies Act, 2013.
Till the introduction of One Person Company in India, the Limited Liability and Continuous Existence feature was only available to an association of persons such as a Private Limited Company or Limited Liability Partnership or a Limited Company. With the introduction of One Person Company, the limited liability and continuous existence feature is now also available for One Person Company, which is an entity with just one member. As One Person Company has just one member, it is necessitated by the law for the single member of the Company to designate another person in the Memorandum of Association, who on the event of subscriber’s death or incapacity shall become the person to contract. This mechanism provides an adequate safeguard to ensure continuous existence of the entity even in case of incapacitation of the single member.
All companies in India are required to hold an annual general meeting each year, in addition to any other meetings and not more than fifteen months should elapse between the dates of subsequent annual general meetings. One Person Company is exempt from holding an annual general meeting or extraordinary general meetings. The resolution signed by the single Director and entered into the minutes book is sufficient, in lieu of a General / Extraordinary General Meeting.
Every company in India is required to prepare and file financial statements that includes balance sheet, profit and loss account, cash flow statement, statement of changes in equity and explanatory notes. In case of One Person Company, cash flow statement is not required.
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PAN Card of shareholders and Directors. Foreign nationals must provide a valid passport.
Aadhar card | Voter ID | Passport | Driving License of Shareholders and Directors.
Latest Telephone Bill | Electricity Bill | Bank Statement | Gas/Water Bill of Shareholders and Directors
Latest Passport size Color photograph of Shareholders and Directors.
Registered office Proof
Latest Electricity Bill | Telephone Bill/Water/Gas Bill of the registered office address
NOC from owner
No Objection Certificate to be obtained from the owner(s) of registered office
If Property is taken on Rent, then rent agreement required. Agreement must be notarized.
All the documents must be apostilled(if applicable) and notarized.
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Frequently asked questions
Once a Company is incorporated, it will be active and in-existence as long as the annual compliances are met with regularly. In case, annual compliances are not complied with, the Company will become a Dormant Company and maybe struck off from the register after a period of time. A struck-off Company can be revived for a period of upto 20 years.
A Digital Signature establishes the identity of the sender or signee electronically while filing documents through the Internet. The Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) mandates that the Directors sign some of the application documents using their Digital Signature. Hence, a Digital Signature is required for all Directors of a proposed Company.
Director Identification Number is a unique identification number assigned to all existing and proposed Directors of a Company. It is mandatory for all present or proposed Directors to have a Director Identification Number. Director Identification Number never expires and a person can have only one Director Identification Number.
Authorized capital of a Company is the amount of shares a company can issue to it shareholders. Companies have to pay the Government an authorized capital fee to issue shares in a Company. Companies have to pay authorized capital fee for a minimum of Rs.1 lakh.
Only a natural person who is an Indian citizen and a resident in India is eligible to incorporate a One Person Company or be a nominee member. The Director or Nominee must also be over 18 years of age. A person can incorporate upto five One Person Companies.
Yes, there are procedures for converting your proprietorship business into a company or an LLP at a later date. However, the procedures for the same are cumbersome, expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, it is wise for entrepreneurs to consider and start an LLP or a company in case they are expecting it to be operational at a bigger scale or they want to raise investment.